The Development of thinking in children of preschool and younger school age
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What we call thinking
In everyday life under the thinking usually understand verbal reasoning. In psychology, this concept has a much broader meaning. Psychologists call thinking is any mental process by which people solve the task.
In life there are a variety of tasks, and they require different kinds of thinking. However, it happens that the same task can be solved in different ways. Then the person chooses the one he / she is familiar and comfortable. By studying the mode of action of a person in such tasks, you can set what kind of thinking he is better developed.
The kinds of thinking
If the problem is solved using logical reasoning, the person uses logical thinking . However, it is not suitable in all cases. For example, it is of little help if the task is that the most convenient way to arrange the furniture in the room. In this case, it is much more useful to visually imagine the different possible options and compare them. Such thinking is called visual-neck or simply neck. Creative thinking is solving problems through the use of visual representations.
There are other types of thinking that are appropriate to other types of tasks. When faced with an unfamiliar task, the solution to which is not known in advance, a person uses creative thinking . Usually it’s intertwined logical and imaginative elements, and a very considerable role belongs to intuition. In some cases, have to resort to visual-active thinking. Its specificity is that it as a necessary element includes a practical test. About people who have well developed this kind of thinking, they say that they have “Golden hands”.
What type of thinking is better?
Let’s give the child the following problem: “the girl had three candies, Mama gave her two more. How many candies she became?” Second graders will solve it using simple reasoning: “Three plus two equals five”. Preschooler, not yet knowing arithmetic, will go about it differently. He will imagine all these candy (two Levochkina and three of my mother’s) and recalculate them in mind as if they were drawn in the picture. The answer would be the same five, but to explain its decision, the child will not. In response to the question “how did you know?” he says, “guessed” or simply, “I know.”
For this task math (verbal) reasoning, which has been used by the second graders, is more convenient than figurative, used by a preschooler. However, there are many tasks where creative thinking is more useful. In particular, it relates to geometric problems. In order to successfully cope with them, you must be able to clearly present in the mind of geometric shapes.
Why do we need drawing lessons
Some parents concentrate totally on how well a child learns math, reading and writing. They are in a hurry to wean the younger pupils from the games, not paying attention to painting, sculpting, designing. Often these parents do not understand what uroki drawing. “Still my child no abilities to this artist and he never will be”, – they reason.
However, drawing lessons (like other “kids” classes) are needed not only to ensure that the child has mastered the skills in this area. They have a much more General significance. These lessons develop creative thinking and the ability to imagine in your mind a variety of situations. This is a necessary condition for a harmonious mental development.
The development of creative thinking
In “preschool” classes – drawing, games, construction blocks before the child is constantly facing challenges that require to conceive of something in the mind. Thanks to this, he develops creative thinking. It serves as a basis for the formation of verbal, logical thinking, which is necessary for mastering the majority of school subjects.
Usually by the time a child enters school creative thinking has already reached a fairly high level. However, this does not mean that its development can no longer worry. It is far from finished. Therefore, “pre-school” classes useful and at school age.
The development of logical thinking
In most cases, reasoning preschooler devoid of logic, though in form they may seem quite reasonable. “Wipe the thermometer Cologne, says five-year-old Andrew, and Victor is going to get infected”. Doesn’t that sound very serious? But the fact is that temperatures are going to measure not Victor, and Andrew. Vite it was measured before. Andrew is confident that a healthy person can be infected if after it to measure the temperature of the patient, not wiping the thermometer.
True logic is generated mainly at school age. Very important role is played by the systematic schooling. Acquainting children with the logic of performing actions (in particular, when solving arithmetic problems), we develop their ability to think logically.
The formalism of the knowledge
Formal name such knowledge that the child is unable to apply in practice. For example, when the formal knowledge of multiplication tables the student cannot solve the problem of the type: “If each of the four boys there are three balls, how many balls they have together?”.
One of the most important reasons that lead to the formalism, is underdevelopment of creative thinking. In this case, it is easy excessive rationality. Logical reasoning, which are not based on perceptions of reality, can outwardly look correct, but essentially they are meaningless. Such problems often arise in children whose parents had early begun to learn to read, write and count, without worrying about other aspects of their development.
Scientific and everyday concepts
In the child’s school teach scientific concepts: “vowel”, “consonant”, “amount”, “work”, etc. at Home, he met with the so-called conventional terms such as “furniture”, “clothes”, “day”, “night”. The power of scientific concepts that they have a clear definition, that child well-known “what to do with them”. Their weakness is their small connection with the child’s everyday life, that they may be used, in General, only in class. Naturally, the strengths and weaknesses of everyday concepts are opposite.
Gradually there is a mutual enrichment of both concepts. Scientific concepts penetrate into life: it turns out that “money” will be needed if you need to calculate how much will cost buy in the store. Everyday concepts become more clear: the child begins to apply to them the methods of reasoning, which he learned in school. So, with the two sides at the same time, the development of thinking of the younger pupils.